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Fun with low fee TXNs on Mainnet
Here's a 0.493 sat/vB TXN I put on mainnet today. You'll have to use the SoChain block explorer to see it though. I give it a 3% chance of getting confirmed, but we'll wait and see. The TXN is a donation to [email protected] since I use their seeder for my network herder.
So last month, I voiced the unpopular opinion that node operators should lower the minrelaytxfee setting to allow low-fee TXNs to propagate more freely throughout the network. Then I asked why miners weren't mining 0.999 sat/vB TXNs during idle periods since it should be more profitable than mining no TXNs at all. Finally I wrote a node herder to walk the network looking for node operators that were running minrelaytxfee below the default (1000 sat). After walking about 26% of the network, turns out about 5% of nodes are allowing low fee TXNs. So in that vein of discussion, I decided to just sign some low-fee TXNs and send them to the 5% of nodes I found and see what happens. To my surprise it showed up on one of the 23 block explorers I tried after broadcasting it. Surprisingly, that comes out to about 5% of explorers accepting low fee TXNs as well. So hopefully 5% or so of the miners will confirm low fee TXNs. We'll see. BTW, to do this, this is what I did.
Pair my HW wallet to Electrum
Use the paytomany Electrum API to craft a TXN below 1 sat/vB
Import the TXN to sign in Electrum
Ran a full node with minrelaytxfee set to 1 sat (0.001 sat/vB)
Walked the network to find a good number of low-fee peers
Use bitcoin addnode API to herd my node to the low-fee peers I discovered.
Use bitcoin sendrawtransaction API to broadcast TXN
Wait and see if it can propagate to a miner and if a miner will accept it. BTW, there is a PR to lower the minrelaytxfee in core, but it's dragged on for years. The setting was lowered about every year or so in the early days, but hasn't been touched for many years now.
New England New England 6 States Songs: https://www.reddit.com/newengland/comments/er8wxd/new_england_6_states_songs/ NewEnglandcoin Symbol: NENG NewEnglandcoin is a clone of Bitcoin using scrypt as a proof-of-work algorithm with enhanced features to protect against 51% attack and decentralize on mining to allow diversified mining rigs across CPUs, GPUs, ASICs and Android phones. Mining Algorithm: Scrypt with RandomSpike. RandomSpike is 3rd generation of Dynamic Difficulty (DynDiff) algorithm on top of scrypt. 1 minute block targets base difficulty reset: every 1440 blocks subsidy halves in 2.1m blocks (~ 2 to 4 years) 84,000,000,000 total maximum NENG 20000 NENG per block Pre-mine: 1% - reserved for dev fund ICO: None RPCPort: 6376 Port: 6377 NewEnglandcoin has dogecoin like supply at 84 billion maximum NENG. This huge supply insures that NENG is suitable for retail transactions and daily use. The inflation schedule of NengEnglandcoin is actually identical to that of Litecoin. Bitcoin and Litecoin are already proven to be great long term store of value. The Litecoin-like NENG inflation schedule will make NewEnglandcoin ideal for long term investment appreciation as the supply is limited and capped at a fixed number Bitcoin Fork - Suitable for Home Hobbyists NewEnglandcoin core wallet continues to maintain version tag of "Satoshi v0.8.7.5" because NewEnglandcoin is very much an exact clone of bitcoin plus some mining feature changes with DynDiff algorithm. NewEnglandcoin is very suitable as lite version of bitcoin for educational purpose on desktop mining, full node running and bitcoin programming using bitcoin-json APIs. The NewEnglandcoin (NENG) mining algorithm original upgrade ideas were mainly designed for decentralization of mining rigs on scrypt, which is same algo as litecoin/dogecoin. The way it is going now is that NENG is very suitable for bitcoin/litecoin/dogecoin hobbyists who can not , will not spend huge money to run noisy ASIC/GPU mining equipments, but still want to mine NENG at home with quiet simple CPU/GPU or with a cheap ASIC like FutureBit Moonlander 2 USB or Apollo pod on solo mining setup to obtain very decent profitable results. NENG allows bitcoin litecoin hobbyists to experience full node running, solo mining, CPU/GPU/ASIC for a fun experience at home at cheap cost without breaking bank on equipment or electricity. MIT Free Course - 23 lectures about Bitcoin, Blockchain and Finance (Fall,2018) https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLUl4u3cNGP63UUkfL0onkxF6MYgVa04Fn CPU Minable Coin Because of dynamic difficulty algorithm on top of scrypt, NewEnglandcoin is CPU Minable. Users can easily set up full node for mining at Home PC or Mac using our dedicated cheetah software. Research on the first forked 50 blocks on v1.2.0 core confirmed that ASIC/GPU miners mined 66% of 50 blocks, CPU miners mined the remaining 34%. NENG v1.4.0 release enabled CPU mining inside android phones. Youtube Video Tutorial How to CPU Mine NewEnglandcoin (NENG) in Windows 10 Part 1 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sdOoPvAjzlE How to CPU Mine NewEnglandcoin (NENG) in Windows 10 Part 2 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nHnRJvJRzZg How to CPU Mine NewEnglandcoin (NENG) in macOS https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zj7NLMeNSOQ Decentralization and Community Driven NewEnglandcoin is a decentralized coin just like bitcoin. There is no boss on NewEnglandcoin. Nobody nor the dev owns NENG. We know a coin is worth nothing if there is no backing from community. Therefore, we as dev do not intend to make decision on this coin solely by ourselves. It is our expectation that NewEnglandcoin community will make majority of decisions on direction of this coin from now on. We as dev merely view our-self as coin creater and technical support of this coin while providing NENG a permanent home at ShorelineCrypto Exchange. Twitter Airdrop Follow NENG twitter and receive 100,000 NENG on Twitter Airdrop to up to 1000 winners Graphic Redesign Bounty Top one award: 90.9 million NENG Top 10 Winners: 500,000 NENG / person Event Timing: March 25, 2019 - Present Event Address: NewEnglandcoin DISCORD at: https://discord.gg/UPeBwgs Please complete above Twitter Bounty requirement first. Then follow Below Steps to qualify for the Bounty: (1) Required: submit your own designed NENG logo picture in gif, png jpg or any other common graphic file format into DISCORD "bounty-submission" board (2) Optional: submit a second graphic for logo or any other marketing purposes into "bounty-submission" board. (3) Complete below form. Please limit your submission to no more than two total. Delete any wrongly submitted or undesired graphics in the board. Contact DISCORD u/honglu69#5911 or u/krypton#6139 if you have any issues. Twitter Airdrop/Graphic Redesign bounty sign up: https://goo.gl/forms/L0vcwmVi8c76cR7m1 Milestones
Sep 3, 2018 - Genesis block was mined, NewEnglandcoin created
Sep 8, 2018 - github source uploaded, Window wallet development work started
Sep 11,2018 - Window Qt Graphic wallet completed
Sep 12,2018 - NewEnglandcoin Launched in both Bitcointalk forum and Marinecoin forum
Sep 14,2018 - NewEnglandcoin is listed at ShorelineCrypto Exchange
Sep 17,2018 - Block Explorer is up
Nov 23,2018 - New Source/Wallet Release v1.1.1 - Enabled Dynamic Addjustment on Mining Hashing Difficulty
Nov 28,2018 - NewEnglandcoin became CPU minable coin
Nov 30,2018 - First Retail Real Life usage for NewEnglandcoin Announced
Dec 28,2018 - Cheetah_Cpuminer under Linux is released
Dec 31,2018 - NENG Technical Whitepaper is released
Jan 2,2019 - Cheetah_Cpuminer under Windows is released
Jan 12,2019 - NENG v1.1.2 is released to support MacOS GUI CLI Wallet
Jan 13,2019 - Cheetah_CpuMiner under Mac is released
Feb 11,2019 - NewEnglandcoin v1.2.0 Released, Anti-51% Attack, Anti-instant Mining after Hard Fork
Mar 16,2019 - NewEnglandcoin v126.96.36.199 Released - Ubuntu 18.04 Wallet Binary Files
Apr 7, 2019 - NENG Report on Security, Decentralization, Valuation
Apr 21, 2019 - NENG Fiat Project is Launched by ShorelineCrypto
Sep 1, 2019 - Shoreline Tradingbot project is Launched by ShorelineCrypto
Dec 19, 2019 - Shoreline Tradingbot v1.0 is Released by ShorelineCrypto
Jan 30, 2020 - Scrypt RandomSpike - NENG v1.3.0 Hardfork Proposed
Feb 24, 2020 - Scrypt RandomSpike - NENG core v1.3.0 Released
Jun 19, 2020 - Linux scripts for Futurebit Moonlander2 USB ASIC on solo mining Released
Jul 15, 2020 - NENG v1.4.0 Released for Android Mining and Ubuntu 20.04 support
Jul 21, 2020 - NENG v188.8.131.52 Released for MacOS Wallet Upgrade with Catalina
Jul 30, 2020 - NENG v184.108.40.206 Released for Linux Wallet Upgrade with 8 Distros
Aug 11, 2020 - NENG v220.127.116.11 Released for Android arm64 Upgrade, Chromebook Support
Aug 30, 2020 - NENG v18.104.22.168 Released for Android/Chromebook with armhf, better hardware support
2018 Q3 - Birth of NewEnglandcoin, window/linux wallet - Done
2018 Q4 - Decentralization Phase I
Blockchain Upgrade - Dynamic hashing algorithm I - Done
Cheetah Version I- CPU Mining Automation Tool on Linux - Done
2019 Q1 - Decentralization Phase II
Cheetah Version II- CPU Mining Automation Tool on Window/Linux - Done
Blockchain Upgrade Dynamic hashing algorithm II - Done
2019 Q2 - Fiat Phase I
Assessment of Risk of 51% Attack on NENG - done
Launch of Fiat USD/NENG offering for U.S. residents - done
Initiation of Mobile Miner Project - Done
2019 Q3 - Shoreline Tradingbot, Mobile Project
Evaluation and planning of Mobile Miner Project - on Hold
Initiation of Trading Bot Project - Done
2019 Q4 - Shoreline Tradingbot
Shoreline tradingbot Release v1.0 - Done
2020 Q1 - Evaluate NENG core, Mobile Wallet Phase I
NENG core Decentralization Security Evaluation for v1.3.x - Done
Light Mobile Wallet Project Initiation, Evaluation
2020 Q2 - NENG Core, Mobile Wallet Phase II
NENG core Decentralization Security Hardfork on v1.3.x - Scrypt RandomSpike
Light Mobile Wallet Project Design, Coding
2020 Q3 - NENG core, NENG Mobile Wallet Phase II
Review on results of v1.3.x, NENG core Dev Decision on v1.4.x, Hardfork If needed
Light Mobile Wallet Project testing, alpha Release
2020 Q4 - Mobile Wallet Phase III
Light Mobile Wallet Project Beta Release
Light Mobile Wallet Server Deployment Evaluation and Decision
Hey guys, I thought I would put together an in-depth tour of the Gridcoin wallet software for all of our recent newcomers. Here I'll be outlining all the features and functions the windows GUI wallet has to offer, along with some basic RPC command usage. I'll be using the windows wallet as an example, but both linux and macOS should be rather similar. I'll be including as many pictures as I can as embedded hyperlinks. Edit: Note that since I originally made this there has been a UI update, so your client will be different colors but all the button locations are in the same place. This is my first post like this, so please forgive me if this appears a little scatter-brained. This will not cover the mining setup process for pool or solo miners. When you launch the wallet software for the first time you should be greeted with this screen.
If you're a pool miner or investor, press cancel.
If you're a solo miner, enter your email you used to sign up for projects and press OK.
If you're not sure or haven't decided yet, press cancel. We can come back to this later.
After that prompt, you should be left sitting on the main overview tab with several fields on it. From top to bottom:
Available: All coins available to be sent or staked (I'll cover this term later).
Stake: All coins that are currently staking.
Unconfirmed: All coins that have been received and have not yet received 110 confirmations.
Total: All coins in your wallet. (The sum of the above fields)
Blocks: How many blocks your client has in it's chain. Your wallet just started syncing with the network so this number will be low.
Difficulty: How difficult it is for someone to stake the next block.
Net Weight: An estimate for how many coins are staking on the entire network.
Coin Weight: How many of your coins that are currently staking.
Magnitude: A quantifier for how much work you put in mining. For solo miners only. For pool miners, this value will always be 0.
Project: Displays the projects you're working on, one at a time. For solo miners only. For pool miners, this will always say "INVESTOR".
CPID: Cross Project Identifier. Used to keep track of users across projects. For solo miners only. For pool miners, this will always say "INVESTOR".
Status: Displays various status messages.
Current Poll: Displays the latest poll.
Client Messages: Displays various client messages.
Now onto the other tabs on the left side. Currently we're on the Overview tab, lets move down to the Send tab. This tab it pretty self-explanatory, you use it if you want to send coins, but I'll go over the fields here:
Pay To: Enter a valid gridcoin address to send coins too. Gridcoin addresses always start with an S or and R.
Label: Enter a label here and it will put that address in your "address book" under that label for later use. You can leave it blank if you don't want it in your address book.
Message: Enter a message here if you want it attached to your transaction.
Amount: How many coins you want to send.
Add Attachment: Leave this alone, it is broken.
Track Coins: This doesn't do anything.
Now down to the Receive tab. Here you should have a single address listed. If you double click on the label field, you can edit it's label.
New: Generate a new address.
If you click on an address, the rest of the options should be clickable.
Copy: Copy the selected address to your clipboard.
Show QR Code: Show a scan-able QR code for the selected address.
Sign Message: Cryptographically sign a message using the selected address.
The Transactions tab is pretty boring considering we have no transactions yet. But as you can see there are some sorting tools at the top for when you do have transactions listed.
ADDRESS BOOK TAB
The Address Book is where all the addresses you've labeled (that aren't yours) will show up.
Verify Message: Verifies a message was signed by the selected address.
The rest of the functions are similar to the functions on the Receive tab.
Onto the Voting tab. There wont be any polls because we aren't in sync yet.
Reload Polls: Pretty self-explanatory, I've never had to use this.
Load History: By default, the wallet will only display active polls. If you want to view past polls you can use this.
Create Poll: You can create a network-wide poll. You must have 100,000 coins as a requirement to make a poll. (Creating a poll does not consume the coins)
Display coin control features (experts only!): This allows you to have a great deal of control over the coins in your wallet, check this for now and I'll explain how to use it further down. Don't forget to click "Apply".
ENCRYPTING YOUR WALLET
Now that all of that is out of the way. The first thing you'll want to do is encrypt your wallet. This prevents anybody with access to your computer from sending coins. This is something I would recommend everyone do. Go to Settings > Encrypt Wallet and create a password. YOU CANNOT RECOVER YOUR COINS IF YOU FORGET YOUR PASSWORD. Your wallet will close and you will have to start it up again. This time when it opens up, you should have a new button in the bottom left. Now if you want to stake you will have to unlock your wallet. Notice the "For staking only" box that is checked by default. If you want to send a beacon for solo mining or vote, you will need to uncheck this box.
GETTING IN SYNC AND ICONS
Before we continue, Let's wait until we're in sync. Depending on your internet speeds, this could take from several hours to over a day or 2. This can be sped up by using Advanced > Download Blocks, but this can still take several hours. This is what an in-sync client should look like. Notice the green check to the right of the Receive tab. All of these icons give you information when you hover your mouse over them. The lock The arrow tells you if you're staking. If you aren't staking, it will tell you why you're not staking. If you are staking it will give you an estimated staking time. Staking is a very random process and this is only an estimate, not a countdown. The connection bars tell you how many connections to the network you have. The check tells you if you're in sync.
WHAT IS STAKING?
Now I've said "stake" about a million times so far and haven't explained it. Gridcoin is a Proof of Stake (PoS) coin. Unlike bitcoins Proof of Work (PoW), PoS uses little system resources, so you can use those resources for scientific work. PoS works by users "Staking" with their balance. The higher the balance, the higher the chance to create, or "stake" a block. This means you need to have a positive balance in order to stake. Theoretically, you can stake with any amount over 0.0125 coins, but in practice it's recommended to have at least 2000 coins to reliably stake. Staking is important for solo miners, because they get paid when they stake. Pool miners don't need to stake in order to get paid however. So if you want to solo mine, you'll need to buy some coins from an exchange or start in the pool first and move to solo when you have enough coins. In addition to Research Rewards for miners, anyone who holds coins (solo miners, pool miners, and investors) gets 1.5% interest annually on top of your coins. So it can be beneficial for pool miners to stake as well. Here is a snippet of what a research rewards transaction looks like from my personal wallet. I have a label on that address of "Payout address" as you can see here.
UTXOS AND COIN CONTROL
At this point you'll need some coins. You can use one of our faucets like this one or this one to test coin control out. First let me explain what a UTXO is. UTXO stands for Unspent Transaction Output. Say you have an address with 0 coins in it, and someone sends you 10 coins like I've done here. Those 10 coins are added to that address in the form of a UTXO, so we have an address with one 10 coin UTXO in it. Now we receive another 5 coins at the same address, like so. Now we have an address with one 10 coin UTXO and one 5 coin UTXO. But how do we view how our addresses are split up into different UTXOs? Earlier we checked the "Display coin control features" box in Settings > Options > Display. Once that's checked you'll notice there's another section in the Send tab labeled "Coin Control Features". If you click the "Inputs" button, you'll get a new window. And look, there's our 2 UTXOs. All UTXOs try to stake separately from each other, and remember that the chance a UTXO has to stake is proportional to it's size. So in this situation, my 10 coin UTXO has twice the chance to stake as my 5 coin UTXO. Now wallets, especially ones that make a lot of transactions, can get very fragmented over time. I've fragmented my wallet a little so I can show you what I'm talking about. How do we clean this up? We can consolidate all this into one UTXO by checking all the boxes on the left and selecting OK. Now pay attention to the fields on the top:
Quantity: The total amount of UTXOs we have selected.
Amount: The total amount of coins we have selected.
Fee: How much it would cost in fees to send all those UTXOs (more UTXOs = more transaction data = more fees)
After Fee: Amount - Fees.
Bytes: How large the transaction is in bytes.
Priority: How your client would prioritize making a transaction with this specific set of UTXOs selected had you not used coin control.
Low Output: If your transaction is less than 0.01 coins (I think).
custom change address: You can set the address you get your change back at, by default it will generate a new address.
So let's fill out our transaction so we end up with 1 UTXO at the end. In "Pay To:" Just put any address in your wallet, and for the amount put what it has listed in the "After Fee" Field. Just like this. Notice how we get no change back. Now click "Send", we'll be prompted to enter our passphrase and we're asked if we want to pay the fee, go ahead and click "Yes". Now if we go back to the Overview tab we get this funky icon. If you hover your mouse over it, it says "Payment to yourself", and the -0.0002 GRC is the network transaction fee. (Ignore the first one, that was me fragmenting my wallet) Now if we look at the Coin Control menu, we can see that we've slimmed our wallet down from 7 UTXOs to 1. Now why would you want to use coin control? 2 Situations:
UTXOs less than 0.0125 coins cannot stake. So you can combine a lot of tiny, useless UTXOs into 1 bigger one that can stake.
After a UTXO stakes, it cannot stake for another 16 hours. So if you have 1 large UTXO that is big enough to stake more than once every 16 hours, you can split it into smaller UTXOs which can allow you to stake slightly more often.
By default, the wallet will always generate a new address for change, which can make your wallet get very messy if you're sending lots of transactions. Keep in mind that more UTXOs = larger transactions = more fees.
Sidenote - When you stake, you will earn all research rewards owed reguardless of which UTXO staked. However, you'll earn the 1.5% interest for that UTXO. Not your whole wallet.
A fork is when the network splits into multiple chains, with part of the network on each chain. A fork can happen when 2 blocks are staked by different clients at the same time or very close to the same time, or when your client rejects a block that should have been accepted due to a bug in the code or through some other unique circumstance. How do I know if I'm on a fork? Generally you can spot a fork by looking at the difficulty on your Overview tab. With current network conditions, if your difficulty is below 0.1, then you're probably on a fork. You can confirm this by comparing your blockhash with someone elses, like a block explorer. Go to [Help > Debug Window > Console]. This is the RPC console, we can use to do a lot of things. You can type help to get a list of commands, and you can type help [command you need help with] (without the brackets) to get information on a command. We'll be using the getblockhash [block number] command. Type getblockhash [block number] in the console, but replace [block number] with the number listed next to the "Blocks:" field on the Overview tab. This will spit out a crazy string of characters, this is the "blockhash" of that block. Now head over to your favorite block explorer, I'll be using gridcoinstats. Find the block that you have the hash for, use the search bar or just find it in the list of blocks. Now compare your hash with the one gridcoinstats gives you. Does it match? If it matches, then you're probably good to go. If it matches but you still think you're on a fork, then you can try other block explorers, such as gridcoin.network or neuralminer.io. If it doesn't match, then you need to try to get off that fork. How do I get off a fork?
Just wait for an hour or two. 95% of the time your client is able to recover itself from a fork given a little time.
Restart the client, wait a few minutes to see if it fixes itself. If it doesn't restart again and wait. Repeat about 4 or 5 times.
Find where the fork started. Using the getblockhash command, go back some blocks and compare hashes with that on a block explorer so you can narrow down what the last block you and the block explorer had in common. Then use reorganize [the last block hash you had in common]. Note that reorganize takes a blockhash, not a block number.
A listening node is a node that listens for blocks and transactions broadcasted from nodes and forwards them on to other nodes. For example, during the syncing process when you're getting your node running for the first time, you're downloading all the blocks from listening nodes. So running a listening node helps support the network. Running a gridcoin listening node is simple. All you need to do is add listen=1 to your gridcoinresearch.conf and you need to forward port 32749 on your router. If you don't know how to port forward, I'd suggest googling "How to port forward [your router manufacturer]".
Non-propagating dust transaction creation by pools needs to stop!
This is an issue that has led to unnecessary clogging of the network for a long time, yet it seems to be one that has been overlooked for some time. For those who don't know: BLOCK REWARD = 12.5BTC + (SUM OF ALL TRANSACTION FEES MINED ON THAT BLOCK) Most of the largest pools keep the transaction fee part of the block reward for themselves (i.e. they do not pay that out to miners.) Here's what I'm talking about: This is done by pools that do not pay out transaction fees to miners (Antpool is by far the worst offender.) The practice is only profitable to pools which retain the transaction fee part of the block reward for themselves. The pool constantly creates a large number of minable but non-propagating transactions by creating transactions which violate the network "dust" rule. This rule prevents payments of less than 0.00001BTC from being broadcast throughout the network. As a result the transaction gets "stuck" in the pool's node and as such can only be mined by them. They will attach a large fee to the transaction, which in turn lowers the priority of transactions with lower fees attached. This ensures that only transactions with the highest fees are included in the block they mine- leaving the transactions with lower fees attached unconfirmed, driving up the necessary transaction fee, wasting mining power mining transactions that server no other purpose other than to drive up transaction fees and allowing the pool to, in essence, refuse to mine transactions with a fee below a certain amount attached. Since the pool will mine it's own transactions, they can create a virtually unlimited number of these transactions, with many unconfirmed descendants, to serve their purpose depending on the state of the mempool, and since they do not pay out transaction fees to the miners, they will get back all the transaction fees they used to attach to these transactions. Algorithms determine how much of the block-space to "waste" in order to maximize the profit- since the mempool can be analyzed at any time, it can be determined exactly how many transactions to create and what fee to attach in order to mine the transactions with the highest fee attached and drive up the necessary fee to have a transaction confirmed along with the "smart-fee," while ensuring low fee transactions are mined by the pools that do not practice this strategy. The strategy pays highest when the mempool is above 1MB (the size of a block) or has quickly filled. It also is most profitable when the fee distribution and queue-time in the mempool is highly divided/distributed- this strategy can prevent lower-fee transactions that have been waiting a long time to confirm from replacing new transactions that have a high fee attached on a block. In Summary:
Pool creates many "dust" transactions and attaches a high fee to each.
Dust transactions (transactions below 0.00001BTC) do not broadcast, so the pool is guaranteed to mine its own transactions and re-collect the high fees they attached to the transaction.
Pool now only mines outside transactions with the highest fees (per kB) attached, leaving the low-fee transactions to be mined by pools which do not practice this while simultaneously driving up the fee necessary to have a transaction confirmed.
Example: https://www.blockchain.com/en/btc/tx/c57ea54104bbf160bac88b65b2edf465c5f8ac9253c42e391100fc31b028d645 If you click on the address, you can see this exact transaction is repeated exactly every hour (which sends a fixed amount back to itself and an address that cannot be decoded, due to the nature of the transaction, being sent 0BTC- which is what makes this a dust transaction.) If you go back to the block this transaction was originally confirmed (mined) on (by Antpool) you will see tons of similar transactions. In fact, Antpool has hundreds, if not thousands, of addresses used solely for this purpose. The practice is much more calculated and complex (in actual practice) than I summarized above. Eventually (or sometimes even on the same block) the divided outputs created by each transaction you see on that account would/will be concatenated into a single output over an additional series of combining, non-broadcasting, "dust" transactions. Can it technically be considered a fair practice? While their are plenty of valid reasons to create non-propagating transactions, such as to concatenate inputs left with dust amounts of bitcoin after valid transactions, without risking loosing the entire amount due to the minimum transaction fee being larger than the total amount, creating transactions like this with no other purpose than to increase a pools own profits is hard to argue as being a honorable one. Furthermore, since this practice is overall detrimental to the network (filling blocks with loads of unnecessary transactions, slowing confirmation times and artificially manipulating the necessary transaction fees) and in addition penalizes pools which pay the transaction fee part of the block reward to miners (since the practice cannot be performed by such pools, as it would cost the pool far too much,) as well as the fact that THE MINERS- THE ONES ACTUALLY CONTRIBUTING THE MINING POWER ARE NOT BENEFITING, I think it is safe to say that this practice is a deplorable one. Yes, one could argue that this is a loophole and exploiting it is going to be a natural occurrence, but I believe that since it encourages pools not to pay the transaction fee part of the block reward to miners, it is a practice that should not continue. What to do about it? There are a few options: You can try if you run a full-node, but...: I for instance run a full node on a high bandwidth, fixed IP and allow incoming connections. I allow more connections in the command line options and maintain a few hundred connections at once. I noticed a few pools started automatically connecting to my node (I had to do some nmap scanning and some other testing to confirm they were indeed pool nodes, and who they belonged to, but was able to determine that- my first clue was multiple connections from bitcoinj nodes in the same subnet.) I was also able to find the addresses of other pool nodes and manually add them with the `addnode' command. So, with multiple pools connected (or the ability to connect to multiple pools upon restart,) I tweaked my node to allow for the broadcast of both zero-fee and dust transactions. My thinking was that I could serve as an unknowing "bridge" between pools- broadcasting one pools "dust" transactions to another, thereby removing the pool's ability to ensure that the transaction was not mined by another pool and making the practice unprofitable. BUT... While this sounds good in theory, in practice it doesn't work for a few reasons. First of all, the pool nodes would not connect to me once I started broadcasting dust transactions. Second, I noticed my overall connection count way down, leading me to believe that broadcasting dust transactions was causing me to be labeled as a misbehaving node and finally, while this could work for some less advanced pools, Antpool, at least, designs its dust transactions in such a way that they violate more than just the "dust" rule- further tweaking would be required and this would need to be an action taken by a majority of nodes to work. The only other option, I suppose, would be to appeal to the bitcoin dev team. Perhaps they could implement a way to prevent this practice, although I do not likely see it happening. The "dust" rule is in place to prevent clogging of the network with tiny transactions- to prevent anyone wishing to back-up the network from being able to do so without spending a large sum of money. The dust rule and the minimum transaction fee go hand in hand to prevent such occurrence- so anyone wishing to do harm to the network would soon find themselves spending very large amounts of BTC in an attempt to back it up- pools which retain the transaction fee however are not bound by these limitations. The only real option to fight this, as a miner, is to mine on a pool that pays the transaction fee part of the block reward to the miners- you'll make more anyway, even if the overall fee may be slightly higher. An example of one of these pools is KANO, there are many others. I would just avoid antpool in general- but that's just me. tl;dr Pools which retain the transaction fee part of the block reward use a loophole is a network rule that allows them to only mine high fee transactions, which in turn hurts pools that pay the transaction fee part of the block reward to miners, clogs up the network- slowing confirmation times, and drives up transaction fees.
Trying to salvage some coins from 2013. Core (bitcoin-qt.exe v0.8.1-beta on Windows 8.1) is taking weeks to DL the blockchain as expected but keeps crashing now. Can I upgrade to a newer version without losing what I've gotten already (about 75% complete)?
Currently there are 134305 blocks remaining. When I start it up it works pretty smoothly for a while but then slows down. I leave it running while I'm gone but the last several days when I've come back it has crashed and gives me an I/O error, and I have to hit OK then start it back up. It does appear to be further along when I start it back up but not by a whole lot. So this has really slowed my progress. It's reindexed about 75% though, and so I don't want to start over from the beginning. The drive it is on has ~400gb of free space so that's not the issue. I have 8gb of memory, and the task manager says bitcoin is taking up about 500mb, but it's using 60-85% of my cpu at a time. If I download a newer version of core, I can just copy/paste the old wallet.dat file, right? But wouldn't it have to start downloading the entire blockchain again from the beginning? If so, is there any quicker method? While typing this, it crashed twice. It only runs for about 10 minutes. The version I have doesn't have any settings I can change. I read that there's a db size limit you can change in later versions that could help. This one does have a "debug window" with a command line console but I don't really know what to do with it. Here is a list of available commands: ￼
Algorithm: Renesis Ticker: RESS Whitepaper v1: https://github.com/renesisgroup/whitepapeblob/masteRENESIS-paper.pdf Block Time: 2 minutes Block Reward: Variable. Refer to whitepaper for reward structure. Halving: Yes Doubling: Yes Mined Confirmations PoW/PoS : 60 TX Confirmations: 10 Minimum RX confirmations to forward: 1 Total Coin Supply: 350M for Proof of Work PoS Cap: No PoS Stake Reward: 10% per year Pre-mine: Yes ( First 100 Blocks mined on low difficulty with CPUMiner) Bounties Available: Yes - From Premine Rewards Available for Community Developers: Yes, from Premine CPUMiner Available: Yes - Windows binary & source. NVIDIA GPUMiner Available: Yes ( Reward for fair release of GPUMiner is paid! 50,000 RESS ) AMD GPUMiner Available: No ( Reward for fair release of GPUMiner is > 12,000 RESS ) Renesis New Logo Design Competition: Yes ( Reward of 2000 RESS ) Renesis QT Wallet Theming Competition: Yes ( Reward of 5000 RESS ) Renesis V2 Static Website Design Competition: Yes ( Reward of 7000 RESS ) Renesis public Pool addition reward: Yes (10000 RESS) - First 3 Pools. Renesis Node Hosting: Yes ( Reward of 1000 RESS offered for 1 month of hosting ) Translation Bounties: Yes ( Reward of 500 RESS per translation posted ) Social Media Bounties: Yes ( Connect with us on our channels for information ) ICO: No - Bitcoin Talk ANN for everyone to mine starting 101 block Masternodes: Planned MainNet P2P port: 9775 MainNet RPC port: 9774 TestNet P2P port: 19775 TestNet RPC port: 19774 Renesis Development Team : hav0k - 2 developers Group : The Renesis Group ( Visit www.renesis.io for profiles ) - 7 members Web Site: http://www.renesis.io Block Explorers: http://tx.renesis.io - https://protopool.net/exploreRESS Reddit: https://www.reddit.com/Renesis/ Connections: Discord, Telegram, Slack ( Visit www.renesis.io to connect ) Will have web wallet: No - We believe coins should be safe in your wallets not online. Pools: To be announced after announcement. Exchanges: To be announced.
addnode node1.renesis.io addnode node2.renesis.io addnode node3.renesis.io addnode node4.renesis.io addnode node5.renesis.io ( Node by CryptoHobo. 1K RESS every month . TXID : 1e7a332788bceb23438b783dac172c853804d51443f43a1d68b378447981059f - 22 July 2018 addnode i.crashed.online addnode he.crashed.online addnode it.crashed.online addnode she.crashed.online addnode renesisckko455xx.onion add ( Tor Node ) Terms & Conditions for GPUMiner Releases : Developers must release the mining software + source after brief testing to Renesis Group to claim their reward. The group will immediately upload the GPUMiner with sources on github after mining 2 test blocks and will provide proof to community. If GPUMiner software is released directly to the community then it would fair but there will be no reward for software developers.
Phase 1 Renesis Release Development - done CPUMiner Development - done Generate the premine - done Announcement - Underway Community Developers - 3 required and backed by funding from premine. Update: 1st Dev joined the dev team GPUMiners for AMD - Awaited and backed by rewards for fair release by developers. Masternodes Solution - TBA by developers and community consensus and backed by rewards from premine. ASIC Survey - Planned Rensis Hash Enhancement - Planned. TBA under phase 2 or after ASIC Survey Renesis Holdings Fund - Planned Phase 2 - Next Good things coming here =) Real use case 1 - Planned Real use case 2 - Planned To be announced after completion of Phase 1 Phase 3 - Planned Online Gaming - Planned Phase 4 - Planned To be announced after completion of Phase 3
Before doing anything with BCC, I transferred my BTC from one bitcoin address (old address) to another (new address), a total of 2.05 BTC. I only had one address in my wallet (old address) when I started. So, I installed the Bitcoin ABC client and completely synched with the Bitcoin Cash blockchain, after copying my blockchain data from the core data directory, addnode'ng the Bitcoin Cash nodes to the .conf file, starting with a brand spanking new fresh wallet, and issuing the following command to pick up the correct blocks after the fork:
I then proceeded to import my (old address) private key:
..., into Bitcoin ABC and waited (patiently) for the rescan to complete. The crazy part: I was 1 BCC short - it showed 1.05 BCC instead of 2.05 BCC. So, I went back into my core wallet, copied the entire list of transactions to a spreadsheet and compared them to the list of transactions in the ABC client to see what the heck happened. The ABC client transaction list shows two 0.5 BTC withdrawals (from the old address) circa 2016, that never happened and this is the reason that I am 1 BCC short in the end. I don't know how this is possible. The withdrawals were all from around mid to late 2016, way before this fork happened, and that part of the blockchain is common to both. Since I was able to transfer the entire 2.05 BTC from my old BTC address to a new BTC address before I started, with >10 confirmations, I definitely know that I had 2.05 BTC at the old address, the only address I used until after the fork. If anybody has any ideas on how this is possible, or what steps I should take next to reconcile my BCC amount with my BTC amount pre-fork, I am all ears.
I think there's an interesting legal liability question here - if someone buys a product and then uses your service to Finney attack the merchant, are you part of a conspiracy to defraud the seller?
-Mike Hearn What Mike is saying is that even though the Bitcoin protocol allows miners total freedom to put any valid transaction they want to in their blocks, the legal system may be used to try to restrict that freedom and punish miners to don't the de facto practice of only mining the first valid transactions broadcast to the network. It's easy to see the legal case playing out: suppose insecure hacks like Mycelium's transaction radar catch on. We'll have a lot of people doing transactions that depend on miners all following the same mining rules, and eventually someone is going to get hurt. They're going to want to find someone to sue, and what better than the mining pool who mined the double-spend transaction? What's wrong with that? Of course, first and foremost by encouraging people to use Bitcoin insecurely we invite heavy handed regulation when things go wrong. We're already seeing regulators cite the hundreds of millions of dollars lost by MtGox as evidence of the need for legal regulation, rather than technological measures like multisig. Why make the exact same mistake all over again with unconfirmed transactions? There's a deeper reason too: relying on unconfirmed transactions is only possible by making Bitcoin more centralized at the mining level, at the network level, and at the development team level. Every Bitcoin release accepts a slightly different set of transactions as valid - do you want to be worried about legal liability if your mining operation allows an attacker to rip off someone because you upgraded sooner or later than the rest of the network? Or just were using a different client all together? Like it or not, if one miner accepts a different set of transaction types than another, that's an opportunity to double-spend. At the network level transactions simply do not and never will propagate through the network instantly. At the same time until a transaction is confirmed there isn't any proof that the transaction propagated to any hashing power at all - the proof that a transaction was succesfully published is in the form of PoW only. Again, the only way to make unconfirmed transactions even close to safe is to make the network of miners smaller - do you want to be exposed to legal liability just because your small mining pool had a worse network connection than the biggest pool? You could even be in a situation where you've been sybil attacked, preventing you from seeing some transactions at all. You won't have any proof of that fact - instead it'll look like you participated in an attempt to rip someone off. Finally it's been proposed multiple times that merchants pay for security directly with insurance contracts with major minering pools. The miners agree not to double-spend, and the merchants pay extra for that. Of course, if you're a small miner you're not going to get these contracts - you're much too small to bother talking to. The major mining pools wind up earning more BTC/hash than you, and on top of that, if you ever do end up including a double-spend in one of your blocks it's quite likely those contracts will have those pools just kill off your blocks in a re-organization. The fact is Bitcoin by itself just isn't suited to instant confirmations: if you want decentralization, you have to give everyone time to come to consensus securely. Fortunately we have lots of technologies that can be used in conjunction with Bitcoin for the times when 10 minutes isn't good enough, but if we don't use them we'll end up with a less secure and less decentralized Bitcoin. What you should do if you're a pool operator, solo miner, or mine on p2pool Replace-by-fee simply means that rather than only accepting the first transaction you see to your mempool, you accept whatever one pays the most fees. It's a simple rule that results in the most profit per block, lets users re-issue transactions with higher fees if needed, and most importantly, makes it clear to everyone that relying on unconfirmed transactions by themselves is insecure. I've written a simple replace-by-fee patch based directly on the v0.9.1 codebase. Installation is just a matter of getting my replace-by-fee-v0.9.1 branch from https://github.com/petertodd/bitcoin/tree/replace-by-fee-v0.9.1 and compiling it; you run the code just like you would normally. Unlike BitUndo it's an entirely decentralized system where the 100% of the profits for replacing one unconfirmed transaction with another goes directly to miners. The patch implements preferential peering, which means it seeks out other nodes supporting replace-by-fee to ensure you'll always be connected to like-minded peers; you don't need to -addnode a central server. While I wouldn't recommend a pool like ghash.io to install it right off the bat, if you're a miner on, say, p2pool, installing the patch carries no risk to you, and will help keep Bitcoin decentralized in the future.
Bitcoin Core 0.10.0 released | Wladimir | Feb 16 2015
Wladimir on Feb 16 2015: Bitcoin Core version 0.10.0 is now available from: https://bitcoin.org/bin/0.10.0/ This is a new major version release, bringing both new features and bug fixes. Please report bugs using the issue tracker at github: https://github.com/bitcoin/bitcoin/issues The whole distribution is also available as torrent: https://bitcoin.org/bin/0.10.0/bitcoin-0.10.0.torrent magnet:?xt=urn:btih:170c61fe09dafecfbb97cb4dccd32173383f4e68&dn;=0.10.0&tr;=udp%3A%2F%2Ftracker.openbittorrent.com%3A80%2Fannounce&tr;=udp%3A%2F%2Ftracker.publicbt.com%3A80%2Fannounce&tr;=udp%3A%2F%2Ftracker.ccc.de%3A80%2Fannounce&tr;=udp%3A%2F%2Ftracker.coppersurfer.tk%3A6969&tr;=udp%3A%2F%2Fopen.demonii.com%3A1337&ws;=https%3A%2F%2Fbitcoin.org%2Fbin%2F Upgrading and downgrading How to Upgrade If you are running an older version, shut it down. Wait until it has completely shut down (which might take a few minutes for older versions), then run the installer (on Windows) or just copy over /Applications/Bitcoin-Qt (on Mac) or bitcoind/bitcoin-qt (on Linux). Downgrading warning Because release 0.10.0 makes use of headers-first synchronization and parallel block download (see further), the block files and databases are not backwards-compatible with older versions of Bitcoin Core or other software:
Blocks will be stored on disk out of order (in the order they are
received, really), which makes it incompatible with some tools or other programs. Reindexing using earlier versions will also not work anymore as a result of this.
The block index database will now hold headers for which no block is
stored on disk, which earlier versions won't support. If you want to be able to downgrade smoothly, make a backup of your entire data directory. Without this your node will need start syncing (or importing from bootstrap.dat) anew afterwards. It is possible that the data from a completely synchronised 0.10 node may be usable in older versions as-is, but this is not supported and may break as soon as the older version attempts to reindex. This does not affect wallet forward or backward compatibility. Notable changes Faster synchronization Bitcoin Core now uses 'headers-first synchronization'. This means that we first ask peers for block headers (a total of 27 megabytes, as of December 2014) and validate those. In a second stage, when the headers have been discovered, we download the blocks. However, as we already know about the whole chain in advance, the blocks can be downloaded in parallel from all available peers. In practice, this means a much faster and more robust synchronization. On recent hardware with a decent network link, it can be as little as 3 hours for an initial full synchronization. You may notice a slower progress in the very first few minutes, when headers are still being fetched and verified, but it should gain speed afterwards. A few RPCs were added/updated as a result of this:
getblockchaininfo now returns the number of validated headers in addition to
the number of validated blocks.
getpeerinfo lists both the number of blocks and headers we know we have in
common with each peer. While synchronizing, the heights of the blocks that we have requested from peers (but haven't received yet) are also listed as 'inflight'.
A new RPC getchaintips lists all known branches of the block chain,
including those we only have headers for. Transaction fee changes This release automatically estimates how high a transaction fee (or how high a priority) transactions require to be confirmed quickly. The default settings will create transactions that confirm quickly; see the new 'txconfirmtarget' setting to control the tradeoff between fees and confirmation times. Fees are added by default unless the 'sendfreetransactions' setting is enabled. Prior releases used hard-coded fees (and priorities), and would sometimes create transactions that took a very long time to confirm. Statistics used to estimate fees and priorities are saved in the data directory in the fee_estimates.dat file just before program shutdown, and are read in at startup. New command line options for transaction fee changes:
-txconfirmtarget=n : create transactions that have enough fees (or priority)
so they are likely to begin confirmation within n blocks (default: 1). This setting is over-ridden by the -paytxfee option.
-sendfreetransactions : Send transactions as zero-fee transactions if possible
(default: 0) New RPC commands for fee estimation:
estimatefee nblocks : Returns approximate fee-per-1,000-bytes needed for
a transaction to begin confirmation within nblocks. Returns -1 if not enough transactions have been observed to compute a good estimate.
estimatepriority nblocks : Returns approximate priority needed for
a zero-fee transaction to begin confirmation within nblocks. Returns -1 if not enough free transactions have been observed to compute a good estimate. RPC access control changes Subnet matching for the purpose of access control is now done by matching the binary network address, instead of with string wildcard matching. For the user this means that -rpcallowip takes a subnet specification, which can be
a single IP address (e.g. 22.214.171.124 or fe80::0012:3456:789a:bcde)
a network/CIDR (e.g. 126.96.36.199/24 or fe80::0000/64)
a network/netmask (e.g. 188.8.131.52/255.255.255.0 or fe80::0012:3456:789a:bcde/ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff)
An arbitrary number of -rpcallow arguments can be given. An incoming connection will be accepted if its origin address matches one of them. For example: | 0.9.x and before | 0.10.x | |--------------------------------------------|---------------------------------------| | -rpcallowip=192.168.1.1 | -rpcallowip=192.168.1.1 (unchanged) | | -rpcallowip=192.168.1.* | -rpcallowip=192.168.1.0/24 | | -rpcallowip=192.168.* | -rpcallowip=192.168.0.0/16 | | -rpcallowip=* (dangerous!) | -rpcallowip=::/0 (still dangerous!) | Using wildcards will result in the rule being rejected with the following error in debug.log:
Error: Invalid -rpcallowip subnet specification: *. Valid are a single IP (e.g. 184.108.40.206), a network/netmask (e.g. 220.127.116.11/255.255.255.0) or a network/CIDR (e.g. 18.104.22.168/24).
REST interface A new HTTP API is exposed when running with the -rest flag, which allows unauthenticated access to public node data. It is served on the same port as RPC, but does not need a password, and uses plain HTTP instead of JSON-RPC. Assuming a local RPC server running on port 8332, it is possible to request:
In every case, EXT can be bin (for raw binary data), hex (for hex-encoded binary) or json. For more details, see the doc/REST-interface.md document in the repository. RPC Server "Warm-Up" Mode The RPC server is started earlier now, before most of the expensive intialisations like loading the block index. It is available now almost immediately after starting the process. However, until all initialisations are done, it always returns an immediate error with code -28 to all calls. This new behaviour can be useful for clients to know that a server is already started and will be available soon (for instance, so that they do not have to start it themselves). Improved signing security For 0.10 the security of signing against unusual attacks has been improved by making the signatures constant time and deterministic. This change is a result of switching signing to use libsecp256k1 instead of OpenSSL. Libsecp256k1 is a cryptographic library optimized for the curve Bitcoin uses which was created by Bitcoin Core developer Pieter Wuille. There exist attacks against most ECC implementations where an attacker on shared virtual machine hardware could extract a private key if they could cause a target to sign using the same key hundreds of times. While using shared hosts and reusing keys are inadvisable for other reasons, it's a better practice to avoid the exposure. OpenSSL has code in their source repository for derandomization and reduction in timing leaks that we've eagerly wanted to use for a long time, but this functionality has still not made its way into a released version of OpenSSL. Libsecp256k1 achieves significantly stronger protection: As far as we're aware this is the only deployed implementation of constant time signing for the curve Bitcoin uses and we have reason to believe that libsecp256k1 is better tested and more thoroughly reviewed than the implementation in OpenSSL.  https://eprint.iacr.org/2014/161.pdf Watch-only wallet support The wallet can now track transactions to and from wallets for which you know all addresses (or scripts), even without the private keys. This can be used to track payments without needing the private keys online on a possibly vulnerable system. In addition, it can help for (manual) construction of multisig transactions where you are only one of the signers. One new RPC, importaddress, is added which functions similarly to importprivkey, but instead takes an address or script (in hexadecimal) as argument. After using it, outputs credited to this address or script are considered to be received, and transactions consuming these outputs will be considered to be sent. The following RPCs have optional support for watch-only: getbalance, listreceivedbyaddress, listreceivedbyaccount, listtransactions, listaccounts, listsinceblock, gettransaction. See the RPC documentation for those methods for more information. Compared to using getrawtransaction, this mechanism does not require -txindex, scales better, integrates better with the wallet, and is compatible with future block chain pruning functionality. It does mean that all relevant addresses need to added to the wallet before the payment, though. Consensus library Starting from 0.10.0, the Bitcoin Core distribution includes a consensus library. The purpose of this library is to make the verification functionality that is critical to Bitcoin's consensus available to other applications, e.g. to language bindings such as [python-bitcoinlib](https://pypi.python.org/pypi/python-bitcoinlib) or alternative node implementations. This library is called libbitcoinconsensus.so (or, .dll for Windows). Its interface is defined in the C header [bitcoinconsensus.h](https://github.com/bitcoin/bitcoin/blob/0.10/src/script/bitcoinconsensus.h). In its initial version the API includes two functions:
bitcoinconsensus_verify_script verifies a script. It returns whether the indicated input of the provided serialized transaction
correctly spends the passed scriptPubKey under additional constraints indicated by flags
bitcoinconsensus_version returns the API version, currently at an experimental 0
The functionality is planned to be extended to e.g. UTXO management in upcoming releases, but the interface for existing methods should remain stable. Standard script rules relaxed for P2SH addresses The IsStandard() rules have been almost completely removed for P2SH redemption scripts, allowing applications to make use of any valid script type, such as "n-of-m OR y", hash-locked oracle addresses, etc. While the Bitcoin protocol has always supported these types of script, actually using them on mainnet has been previously inconvenient as standard Bitcoin Core nodes wouldn't relay them to miners, nor would most miners include them in blocks they mined. bitcoin-tx It has been observed that many of the RPC functions offered by bitcoind are "pure functions", and operate independently of the bitcoind wallet. This included many of the RPC "raw transaction" API functions, such as createrawtransaction. bitcoin-tx is a newly introduced command line utility designed to enable easy manipulation of bitcoin transactions. A summary of its operation may be obtained via "bitcoin-tx --help" Transactions may be created or signed in a manner similar to the RPC raw tx API. Transactions may be updated, deleting inputs or outputs, or appending new inputs and outputs. Custom scripts may be easily composed using a simple text notation, borrowed from the bitcoin test suite. This tool may be used for experimenting with new transaction types, signing multi-party transactions, and many other uses. Long term, the goal is to deprecate and remove "pure function" RPC API calls, as those do not require a server round-trip to execute. Other utilities "bitcoin-key" and "bitcoin-script" have been proposed, making key and script operations easily accessible via command line. Mining and relay policy enhancements Bitcoin Core's block templates are now for version 3 blocks only, and any mining software relying on its getblocktemplate must be updated in parallel to use libblkmaker either version 0.4.2 or any version from 0.5.1 onward. If you are solo mining, this will affect you the moment you upgrade Bitcoin Core, which must be done prior to BIP66 achieving its 951/1001 status. If you are mining with the stratum mining protocol: this does not affect you. If you are mining with the getblocktemplate protocol to a pool: this will affect you at the pool operator's discretion, which must be no later than BIP66 achieving its 951/1001 status. The prioritisetransaction RPC method has been added to enable miners to manipulate the priority of transactions on an individual basis. Bitcoin Core now supports BIP 22 long polling, so mining software can be notified immediately of new templates rather than having to poll periodically. Support for BIP 23 block proposals is now available in Bitcoin Core's getblocktemplate method. This enables miners to check the basic validity of their next block before expending work on it, reducing risks of accidental hardforks or mining invalid blocks. Two new options to control mining policy:
-datacarrier=0/1 : Relay and mine "data carrier" (OP_RETURN) transactions
if this is 1.
-datacarriersize=n : Maximum size, in bytes, we consider acceptable for
"data carrier" outputs. The relay policy has changed to more properly implement the desired behavior of not relaying free (or very low fee) transactions unless they have a priority above the AllowFreeThreshold(), in which case they are relayed subject to the rate limiter. BIP 66: strict DER encoding for signatures Bitcoin Core 0.10 implements BIP 66, which introduces block version 3, and a new consensus rule, which prohibits non-DER signatures. Such transactions have been non-standard since Bitcoin v0.8.0 (released in February 2013), but were technically still permitted inside blocks. This change breaks the dependency on OpenSSL's signature parsing, and is required if implementations would want to remove all of OpenSSL from the consensus code. The same miner-voting mechanism as in BIP 34 is used: when 751 out of a sequence of 1001 blocks have version number 3 or higher, the new consensus rule becomes active for those blocks. When 951 out of a sequence of 1001 blocks have version number 3 or higher, it becomes mandatory for all blocks. Backward compatibility with current mining software is NOT provided, thus miners should read the first paragraph of "Mining and relay policy enhancements" above. 0.10.0 Change log Detailed release notes follow. This overview includes changes that affect external behavior, not code moves, refactors or string updates. RPC:
f923c07 Support IPv6 lookup in bitcoin-cli even when IPv6 only bound on localhost
b641c9c Fix addnode "onetry": Connect with OpenNetworkConnection
What is BCT Coin? A revolutionary crypto currency, the BCT Coin is developed chiefly to support the much deserved charitable institutions, reward ever helpful Bitcoin Talk community members and facilitate others in need of financial aid to earn impartially through crypto currency mining. [Special note to our dear BitCoin Talk community members: BCT Coin is your incentive for being part of the best and the most supportive crypto currency forum on the World Wide Web. BCT Coin is your much deserved reward for shaping the prolific and unbiased online fiscal alternatives compared to the irrational ‘only rich get richer’ real-world paper economy. Thank You!] How is BCT Coin different from other crypto currencies? • Developed to aid charitable institutions • Part of premine to be gifted to BitCoin Talk community members • All the charitable donations will be on BitCoin Talk community name • Offer you an option to ‘Mine, Earn & Share your Profits with a Charity’ Coin Specifications Only 51,26,423 Million Total Coins 49% Premined 60 Seconds Block Time 120 Blocks Transaction Confirmations Utilizes SHA3 Keccak Proof-Of-Work Difficulty Retargeted Based on KGW Every 4 Minutes Block Information 1-10 Blocks 2,50,000 Coins Per Block ( Premine ) 11-2000 Blocks 2 Coins Per Block to Control Mine Strom 2001 – 100000 Blocks 9 Coins Per Block 100001 – 200000 Blocks 7 Coins Per Block 200001 – 300000 Blocks 6 Coins Per Block 300001 – 400000 Blocks 3 Coins Per Block 400001 – 414048 Blocks 1 Coin Per Block Config File BctCoin.conf server=1 rpcuser=bctcoin rpcpassword=bctcoin rpcport=2456 p2pport=2455 addnode= 22.214.171.124 addnode= 126.96.36.199 addnode= 188.8.131.52 addnode= 184.108.40.206 Premined Coin Breakup 70% Premine Coins Goes to World Wide Selected Charities 25% Premine Coins Will be insenteved to BitCoinTalk.org Forum 5000 active users above 100 Posts. 3% Premine Coins Given to Bounties 2% Premine Coins Dedicated to Development & Promotions
Cold Wallet: A Bitcoin wallet that is in cold storage (not connected to the internet). Confirmations: A bitcoin transaction is considered unconfirmed until it has been included in a block on the blockchain, at which point it has one confirmation. Each additional block is another confirmation. Coinbase requires 3 confirmations to consider a ... One confirmation is enough for small Bitcoin payments less than $1,000. 3. Enough for payments $1,000 - $10,000. Most exchanges require 3 confirmations for deposits. 6. Enough for large payments between $10,000 - $1,000,000. Six is standard for most transactions to be considered secure. 60. Suggested for large payments greater than $1,000,000. Less is likely fine, but this is to be safe! How ... Click the large blue Download Bitcoin Core button to download the Bitcoin Core installer to your Downloads folder. Optional: Verify the release signatures. If you know how to use PGP, you should also click the Verify Release Signatures link on the download page to download a signed list of SHA256 file hashes. The 0.11 and later releases are signed by Wladimir J. van der Laan’s releases key w Once bitcoin sent to bitcoin address you will see unconfirmed transaction appear with pending confirmation on transaction history page. It will be fully confirmed and available for trade with 3 bitcoin network confirmation. It can take around 30 minutes or more time depending on bitcoin network so do not worry and wait quietly. This is the first step in the transaction process that results in a block confirmation. To function to its full potential, the bitcoin network must not only provide an avenue for transactions, but ...
What happens when you send bitcoins to someone else? - George Levy
create file bitconnectx.conf in C:\Users\your_compuer_name\AppData\Roaming\bitconnectx and add nodes: addnode=220.127.116.11:33089 addnode=18.104.22.168:33089 addnode ... A short simplified tutorial about Bitcoin blocks and confirmations for newbies. For the complete text guide visit: http://bit.ly/2qDVVVW Join our 7-day Bitco... Blockchain Confirmations are important to understand as they can help you know how confident you can be in any given blockchain transaction. When a transaction is broadcast to the blockchain, it ... THIS IS NOT INVESTMENT ADVICE When looking for projects to put our earned BTC into, we want projects with active Dev(s), positive community, and a working product. Paxex meets these requirements ... The Bitcoin Fake Transaction by RBF method is a software that uses the double expense method to send false bitcoin transactions. The btc sent by this method is not confirmed, it is false ...